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An Active Seismic Device with a Dynamic Center of Gravity

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An Active Seismic Device with a Dynamic Center of Gravity

  1. 1. Summary

Most seismic device technologies are passive. This technique is an active seismic device technology with a dynamic center of gravity. It is affected by gravity that installed fixed structures on the surface of the earth. Thus, the structure is fixed at the bottom of the center of gravity. When an earthquake occurs, the seismic waves show motion in up, down, left, and right directions. The types of surface waves are shown in the figure as below.



S(Secondary Wave)



L(Long Wave)



R((Rayleigh wave)

In the seismic wave, the S wave (secondary wave) propagates in transverse waves and moves up and down. Long waves propagate in transverse waves and move horizontally. The R wave (Rayleigh wave) has a large amplitude such as L wave. The action is most damaging because it emits energy in the reverse oval shape at the end.

A damage of Earthquake is caused by surface waves, and damages are generated from left to right motion in a unit structure. From the viewpoint of the structure, Newton’s motion law is applied.

When we look at the point of action of the structure, kinetic energy is concentrated on the opposite side in the direction of the earthquake movement. Thus, it is exceeded into the vertical load limit of the support the structure which will fall or break.

This apparatus is a device for solving such a problem. This device constitutes the center of gravity of the object as a floating structure.

Therefore, the vertical structure has an equilibrium balance when an earthquake occurs, so it has a function as an excellent earthquake protection facility.


  1. 2. Configuration of the device

This apparatus is composed it of which is a vibration damping device, a vibration damping device, and a vibration isolation device.

This device is determined by selecting each device according to the earthquake intensity of the user. Therefore, seismic protection devices can be installed at reasonable cost.

1) Seismic Devices – This device reduces a power of seismic waves with high-strength PC structures and laminated rubber plates. (figurel , figure )

2) Vibration damping device – This device is a device that distributes attenuated seismic waves and shows the dynamic center of gravity using the force of the seismic waves itself, and is a device for maintaining the balance of the support. (figure )

3) Vibration isolator: This is a device that separates the attenuated seismic waves from the ground and construct seismic equipments by using the drag force. (figure )

  1. 3. Uses of the device

1) Electrical equipment: Substation equipment using high voltage, gas circuit breaker,  transformer

2) Gas facilities: LNG static pressure chamber, LNG storage tank

3) Bridge equipment: Bridge support structure

4) Railway facilities: railway lines, curved railway tracks, soft ground railway tracks

5) Structural support consisting of pilotti

This device is a seismic device with dynamic center of gravity. If installed in a soft ground, it is effective as an earthquake proofing device.

  1. 4. Effect

1) It is economical because it will not be discontinued when the equipment is used for repair or replacement in existing facilities

2) It is easy to expand the protection facility of earthquake when it build up for new facilities of earthquake protection.

3) The construction time is short and construction is simple.

4) This device has a great effect of earthquake protection in soft ground.

5) This equipment is easy to recover earthquake damage after preservation of infrastructure equipment after earthquake disaster .

6) In terms of cost, it is economically feasible to compare the cost of earthquake protection equipment with the cost of secondary social damage caused by damage equipment in case of earthquake disaster.


Credit to : CR Corporation Ltd.



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Cacao Processing Plant , South East Sulawesi, Indonesia

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This proposal provides recommendations towards the execution of a design for a cacao processing plant to produce cocoa liquor, powder, and butter from fermented cocoa beans in the North Kolaka district of South East Sulawesi province, Indonesia.
With rising demand globally for chocolate and chocolate derived products, the need is evident for increasing the output of cacao products across the entire supply value chain. Indonesia produces roughly 15% of the world’s cacao, trailing the leading producers, namely Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana
The plant is intended to be located in close proximity to approximately 40,000 Ha of cacao farms.
Currently, cacao pods are transported approximately 200 km to Unahaa Town, the nearest warehousing facility, incurring a large financial and time cost. From Unahaa, the pods are transported to Makassar for processing, or exported to foreign processing plants in Europe, Britain or the United States.
Cacao plantations yield approximately 2 tonnes per Hectare (T/Ha)
2. By maximizing the utilisation of the local farms and lands, cacao plantations are estimated to double, with a predicted yield of up to 160,000 tonnes per annum. The processing plant will also provide a source of labour and may serve as a catalyst to unlock further foreign investment for the been considered for an initial capacity of 120,000 tonnes/year. A total permanent investment of €16 M. The proposed cacao processing plant therefore is estimated. This price excludes other capital costs such as land acquisition, establishment of localised infrastructure and extending established infrastructure to the project site. Additional co the plant construction include :
a review of the existing infrastructure in the local area,
review of current market processes for the plantations in the area, and
identification of required and related infrastructure for the successful operation of the processing plant.

Section 1: Introduction and Background Information

1.1. Introduction

Indonesia is the world’s third largest cocoa producer with over 800,000 tonnes of raw cacao beans per year being produced. Interestingly, 70% of this production comes from the Sulawesi area, mostly from plantations privately owned by small-scale farmers. However, the plantation market is not at its optimal due to a lack of technological advances, agricultural techniques, harvest handling, pest and disease control and land management. It therefore follows that the current production is not at its maximum, required to realize higher profits. However, more importantly for this proposal, is that the current cocoa development initiatives are in three provinces, viz. West Sulawesi, South Sulawesi and Central Sulawesi. There are currently no processing plants in the South-East Sulawesi province, the closest plants being located in Makassar. The red place markers in Figure 1 below indicate Cacao producing areas.

The proposed plant will be located in North Kolaka, South-East Sulawesi and will be designed to initially process approximately 80,000 tonnes/year of cocoa beans, ramping up to 160,000 tonnes/year pending favourable conditions. This location was chosen due to its abundance in cacao bean plantations, which currently supply processing plants located out of the region. Furthermore, it is envisioned that the area of North Kolaka will be developed including a harbour.

1.2. Proposal Objective and Methodology

The main objective of this proposal is to prepare a preliminary task list and a road map of how to proceed with the development of a cacao processing plant for North Kolaka.
The methodology of the proposal is to:
Motivate for a cocoa processing plant in the South-East Sulawesi region,
Understand the workings of a cocoa processing plant and requirements,
Identify the key components and provide estimates of costs, to render a plant cost,
Identify utility requirements and related infrastructure,
Identify important considerations,
Provide recommendations and a project program for the design stage.

Section 2: Concept Stage

2.1. Market Analysis

To transform cacao beans into a consumer targeted product, the beans are processed into three main products: cocoa liquor, cocoa powder, and cocoa butter. Cocoa liquor is solid, unsweetened baking chocolate made from ground cacao nibs, which can be further transformed into cocoa powder and cocoa butter. Cocoa butter is the fat of the cacao nib, and may be used in lotions and pharmaceutical products. It is also the main ingredient in white chocolate. Cocoa powder is the solid product of the cacao nib and can be processed to have varying fat content. The powder is used in beverages, baking, and frequently as a dye. Chocolate is produced by combining both cocoa powder and butter with milk and sugar. With such diverse applications for cocoa liquor, butter, and powder, cacao bean processing is a worthwhile process to invest in.
The market for chocolate and cocoa derived products has grown strongly over the last few years. Demand is mainly driven by growing middle class populations in Brazil, India, China, amongs others, and domestically in Indonesia.
Indonesia processes roughly 30% of the worlds cacao. Although plantations in South-East Sulawesi are common, the province is not recorded to have cacao processing factories. However, the prevalence of plantations in the province does motivate for a further investigation and proposal towards establishing a local processing plant.
The location of the process plant proposed herewith for North Kolaka, is currently surrounded by cacao plantations in the region of 40,000 Ha with potential of reaching 80,000 Ha being predicted.
The plantations are owned and run privately, and the harvests are transported to processing plants outside the area; the nearest being in Makassar, approximately 800km away. Establishing a processing plant close to the farms shortens the value chain and potentially increases farmers’ profits and decreases losses.
Besides the cost of transportation, other challenges to transporting cacao beans over long distances include rain / wet bags, dirty sacks, oil stain sacks, torn/burst sacks and weight loss, which contribute to rejections upon delivery. These issues motivate the need for a local processing plant in the South-East Sulawesi area.

2.2.Competitive Analysis

Currently, cacao plantations in Indonesia cover a total area of 1.75 million hectares with production reaching 828,255 tonnes, spreading almost in all provinces with the main production centers being in the provinces of South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, West Sulawesi, North Sumatra, East Kalimantan, NTT and Java East. Most (94%) of the cocoa plantations belong to smallholder plantation (Rosmawaty, 2015). Cacao processing facilities are found in the South, Western
and Central Sulawesi regions.
The absence of processing plants in the South-East Sulawesi province raises questions as to why it has
not been implemented to date. The reason for this disparity in supply versus local processing facilities is not fully understood, but may be attributed to low crop quality, low farming expertise or challenging accessibility. However, these issues can be addressed by supplementary development programs aimed at empowering farmers and increasing their output.
Rosmawaty et al (2015) studied the development potential of the cocoa industry in South-East Sulawesi. According to their research, the area has cacao as a priority commodity among estate crops
and contributed a 19.3% share of the total national production. The details of land area, production, productivity and the number of cocoa smallholder farmers in Southeast Sulawesi province during the period of 2009-2013 are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Land Area, Production, Productivity and Number of Cocoa Smallholder Farmers in Southeast
Sulawesi Province for the Period 2009-2013 (Rosmawaty, 2015)


Credit :

1 World Consultants
Mohamed Peer B.Sc. (Elec) Pr. Eng.
Fatima Peer B.Sc. (Hons) Pr.Sci.Nat., IAIAsa


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Environmental and Natural Resources program for the Integrated Industrial Plan at South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia:

  • Establish risk-based remediation objectives to reduce the environmental impact of Industrial Plants
  • Encourage sustainable development and environmental awareness
  • Minimize the environmental impact of the operations, optimizing the natural and economic resources
  • Environmental services: Environmental Site Assessment, Site Characterization and Risk Assessment
  • Minimize the environmental impact of the operations, optimizing the natural and economic resources
  • Environmental services: Environmental Site Assessment, Site Characterization and Risk Assessment
    • Environmental management and the use of natural resources are crucial for achieving a sustainable development
    • Huge challenge for planner and policy makers
    • Prevention and Planning Vs Treatment Cost and Environmental Impact
    • We offer services and flexible solutions to resolve these critical issues

    Article 33 verse (4) of The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia :


    • Industrial plans in tropical forest have adverse environmental impacts
    • Impacts may affect an area larger than the sites or facilities
    • Provide environmental tools and use natural resources for sustainable growth is a key issue

    Sustainable development

    Renewable energy

    • Desalination and fresh groundwater
    • Environmental management
    • Land management
    • Wastewater and industrial water
    • Waste energy plants


    Solar & Renewable Energy
    Land M
    Environmental Management
    and Industrial Water System
    Waste Energy Plant
    Desalination & Groundwater

    Support the authorities to apply sustainable planning policies

    • Design economically realistic in site measurement methods
    • Modeling tools validated in pilot sites
    • Design surveillance systems and solutions
    • Assessment of different time-scales: from the very short term (immediate danger) to long term (probability of disturbances)
    • Literature review

    Environmental Communication

    • Public communication about environmental issues favoring the integration of the industrial Park Plan with the Society
    • Plans to promote the public participation : environmental events
    • Media and green marketing: promotional videos and activities

    Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA)

    • Integrated ERA : combined modeling and environmental monitoring
    • Biomarkers : provides an early indication of potential damage to an organism Biomarkers may close the gap between modeling and monitoring
    • Health, Safety and Environmental risk Assessment: make correct decisions in the optimization of an activity

    Vulnerability Assessment and Mapping

    • The vulnerability to pollution may or may not allow to resist pollution accidents
    • Water resources systems (both surface water and groundwater resources), soil and air are subject to different anthropogenic pollution impacts
    • The vulnerability assessment of soil, air and water resources systems to pollution is relevant for drawing pollution risk maps and models

    Integrated Quality Index for vulnerability, risk and pollution assessment

    • Risk and pollution assessment adapted to the local properties of the site
    • Index based on the 10 most prevailing parameters for each medium: pH, temperature, conductivity, CO2, TPH,
      Escherichia coli, Lead…
    • Scaled results: Measured parameters,Vulnerability, Pollution…
    • GIS mapping

    Natural geological risk and vulnerability assessment

    • Research and studies on geological risks : earthquakes, seepage, mass movements, collapses, volcanic eruptions, fire and flash flooding
    • Construction and management of databases
    • Cartographic and management approaches
    • Support to the State and Local Authorities
    • Delivery of data acquisition systems

    Environmental Monitoring

    • A solid implementation of a monitoring plan improves the response time and helps to reduce the damage of environmental incidents
    • Air, soil and groundwater monitoring
    • Use of monitoring data in assessing the consequences of natural resource management and pollution risks

    Environmental Monitoring

    • Civil works
    • Drilling
    • Installation of wells
    • Pumping systems
    • Geophysics
    • High pressure pipelines

    Soil and groundwater Remediation

    • Pump & treat
    • Bioremediation & Biopile
    • Dual-phase extraction (DPE)
    • Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE)
    • Sparging
    • Monitored Natural Attenuation


    Entire Design, Installation, Operation and Maintenance of renewable energy generation plants and parks :

    • Photovoltaic Solar Energy
    • Solar thermal energy systems
    • Electrical energy storage systems
    • Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC)
    • Biogas
    • Surface geothermal energy
    • Small hydropower plants


     Credit :



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